All of the throwing techniques (nage waza) in judo consist of 3 distinct parts; 1) off-balance (kuzushi), 2) entry (tsukuri), and 3) execution (kake) or completion of the technique. Throws are divided into standing (tachi waza) and sacrifice (sutemi waza) techniques. Standing techniques included hand (te waza), hip (koshi waza) and foot (ashi waza) throws. A sacrifice technique means that the person performing the throw actually makes contact with the ground before the opponent. Sacrifice techniques include full or back sacrifice (ma sutemi waza) and side sacrifice (yoko sutemi waza) throws.
Sensei Phil Brier - Flying Yoko Otoshi
Holding techniques (osaekomi waza) are used to seize and control an opponent so that their movement is either restricted or totally eliminated so that they are unable to continue to fight. Holds are characterized by grabbing, squeezing, and pressing, and are used both offensively and defensively from a standing or a ground position. They are often used in combination with throws, chokes, and joint locks.
Chokes & Joint Locks
Chokes (shime waza) are used to reduce or eliminate the flow of blood or air to the brain by strangulation. Chokes are often used to assist with a throw, weaken an opponent during grappling, or render an attacker unconscious if necessary.
If you limit joint movement then you reduce an opponent’s ability to move. Joint locks (kansetsu waza) force a joint to move in an abnormal direction. Joint locks are characterized by bending, leveraging, and twisting. Joint locks are extremely effective because they cause immediate pain and if necessary will immobilize an attacker.
I am like the water:
Silent like the Ponds,
Moving like the Rivers,
Powerful like the Oceans.
I take all forms
To fit a spot
And before I go,
I leave my mark.
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